er brother 兄弟 [Card #19; 字卡第19張: 第2個單字, 字母組合發音 er]

R-controlled vowel;當母音後面跟著r,r會影響母音的發音(r會和母音成為一個音節,發不是長母音也不是短母音的特別音)。

• err, per, her, herb, verb, verbalize, adverb, proverb, superb, herd, clerk, jerk, perk, berserk, berth, perch, person, nerd, nerve, unnerve, serve, conserve, swerve, reserve, deserve, preserve, observe, verse, reverse, averse, adverse, perverse, disperse, universe, verge, converge, diverge, merge, emerge, submerge, serge, germ, term, midterm, fern, tern, stern, intern, internal, external, concern, convert, converse, conservative, controversy, certain, certify, merchant, merchandise, mermaid, mercury, mercy, emergency, jersey, alert, insert, infer, refer, confer, deter, determine, dessert, immerse, nervous, fervent, servant, service, sermon, perfect*, permeate, verdict, versatile, version, aversion, gerbil, kernel, eternal, terminal, terminate, termite, terse, tertiary, alternative, assertive, preservative, divert, diverse, diversity, avert, overt, invert, revert, subvert, exert, excerpt, coerce, expert, were, vice versa, fervor, fertilize, fertile, permanent, pertinent, perforate, sterling, inertia, impersonate
*perfect:當形容詞時,重音落在第一音節;當動詞時,重音落在第二音節。

• gather, wither, mother, other, bother, brother, together, leather, weather, whether, either, neither, another, waver, ever, never, beaver, lever, river, liver, deliver, quiver, silver, cover, hover, over, under, thunder, blunder, wonder, wander, rudder, shudder, ladder, bladder, lavender, slander, squander, gender, render, slender, spider, cider, hinder, bewilder, cylinder, colander, ponder, plunder, order, border, banner, corner, dinner, differ, offer, buffer, suffer, after, banter, cater, canister, chapter, master, matter, tatter, flatter, scatter, splatter, disaster, alter, falter, saunter, barter, charter, water, fetter, letter, center, pester, polyester, liter, litter, jitter, glitter, bitter, sister, administer, filter, winter, theater, teeter, meter, decimeter, centimeter, millimeter, foster, bolster, oyster, loiter, outer, counter, encounter, utter, butter, gutter, mutter, sputter, stutter, muster, luster, cluster, dumpster, pewter, skewer, layer, laser, clever, paper, pamper, hamper, tamper, temper, pepper, whisper, diaper, proper, upper, supper, stagger, eager, linger, trigger, tiger, burger, hamburger, danger, wager, ledger, ginger, integer, roger, flicker, caliber, amber, chamber, clamber, ember, member, remember, timber, cyber, fiber, microfiber, sober, somber, clobber, slumber, lumber, number, rubber, cumber, cucumber, encumber, September, October, November, December, polymer, hammer, manner, garner, holler, pucker, wicker, tinker, panther, answer, perhaps, persuade, percent, perspective, permit, certificate, energy, hibernate, covert


suffix -er ([comparative], more) 字尾加 er 變成比較級

faster, narrower, straighter, fairer, taller, smaller, smarter, darker, harder, warmer, fresher, greater, deeper, meaner, nearer, cleaner, clearer, richer, quicker, thicker, sicker, kinder, higher, lighter, brighter, hotter, stronger, older, colder, lower, slower, broader, softer, longer, shorter, louder, rounder, poorer, sooner, smoother, cooler, fuller, fewer, newer, safer, larger, nicer, wider, wiser, fatter, madder, sadder, bigger, skinner, better, fancier, happier, heavier, healthier, easier, trickier, prettier, busier, funnier, luckier, earlier

◊ 通常直接在字尾加 er(例如 fast → faster)
◊ 形容詞字尾是e:只要加 r(例如 large → larger)
◊ 一音節形容詞,單一母音字母+一個子音字尾:重複子音字尾,再加 er(例如 big → bigger)
◊ 形容詞字尾為y:把y改為i,再加 er(例如 happy → happier)

比較級 & 最高級


suffix -er (person or thing connected with, a person who does an action)

manager, manufacturer, adapter, caster, banker, dancer, camper, sampler, advertiser, catcher, carrier, magnifier, staffer, backer, packer, hacker, cracker, tracker, attacker, wrapper, sanitizer, character, rambler, drafter, traveler, passenger, haggler, challenger, answerer, canvasser, commander, decanter, hanger, spammer, scammer, scanner, planner, examiner, blamer, glancer, dispatcher, flasher, flatterer, handler, scrambler, amplifier, dampener, rancher, stranger, stapler, skater, dater, hater, rater, chaser, gamer, trader, invader, evader, saver, waster, caterer, baker, maker, taker, scraper, shaker, shaver, sharer, preparer, trailer, raider, waiter, waiver, painter, gainer, retainer, container, entertainer, trainer, remainder, remailer, mailer, disclaimer, campaigner, maintainer, appraiser, player, prayer, arranger, vacationer, laborer, carer, caller, talker, walker, installer, falsifier, lawyer, crawler, carver, marker, farmer, gardener, partner, sharpener, charger, charmer, starter, marketer, bargainer, watcher, washer, dishwasher, blender, shredder, dresser, sender, spender, lender, seller, reseller, dweller, renter, lecturer, networker, messenger, meddler, peddler, helper, verifier, identifier, experimenter, tester, questioner, requester, rescuer, protester, offender, defender, dissenter, presenter, developer, adventurer, dispenser, connecter, bearer, wearer, treasurer, dealer, leader, reader, teacher, dreamer, reamer, speaker, preacher, eater, heater, healer, sealer, cleaner, degreaser, weaver, teaser, cheater, eavesdropper, greeter, teenager, freelancer, sweeper, sleeper, sweetener, peeler, freezer, feeler, seeker, keeper, bookkeeper, retailer, schemer, deceiver, reliever, achiever, earner, server, certifier, fertilizer, observer, referrer, converter, diverter, interpreter, researcher, searcher, learner, merger, singer, bidder, digger, dimmer, filler, shipper, simmer, skimmer, swimmer, trimmer, spinner, sniffer, winner, beginner, quitter, thriller, pitcher, lifter, shifter, filterer, fixer, listener, signifier, infringer, petitioner, practitioner, commissioner, prisoner, drinker, thinker, sticker, mixer, printer, builder, interviewer, influencer, incomer, improviser, issuer, tipper, whistleblower, believer, receiver, seizer, cashier, transmitter, conditioner, air conditioner, dehumidifier, delimiter, extinguisher, sprinkler, financier, giver, timer, diner, biker, hiker, driver, rider, filer, writer, typewriter, wiper, glider, licenser, insider, outsider, adviser (advisor), admirer, compiler, provider, subscriber, fighter, designer, reminder, climber, binder, islander, dieter, denier, supplier, flier, fryer, dryer, recycler, buyer, boxer, copier, dodger, lodger, jogger, logger, blogger, blocker, shocker, robber, toddler, borrower, follower, commenter, modernizer, compromiser, shopper, stopper, onlooker, occupier, polisher, photographer, biographer, philosopher, discoverer, adopter, responder, helicopter, thermometer, softener, boiler, pointer, moisturizer, employer, loaner, poacher, roaster, toaster, broadcaster, wholesaler, broker, closer, joker, loner, toner, coder, encoder, decoder, disposer, poser, composer, controller, roller, programmer, poster, opener, grocer, grower, blower, promoter, soldier, folder, holder, beholder, golfer, officer, foreigner, forger, restorer, recorder, reformer, performer, explorer, porter, reporter, importer, exporter, supporter, endorser, enforcer, distorter, worker, organizer, boarder, hoarder, pourer, embosser, owner, booker, cooker, wooer, snooper, booster, roofer, preschooler, chooser, loser, doer, mover, remover, browser, founder, router, doubter, voucher, scourer, outlier, downloader, downsizer, courier, comer, lover, comforter, composter, cruncher, plunger, tumbler, bumper, jumper, juggler, hugger, mugger, runner, cutter, buzzer, trucker, scrubber, hunter, usher, publisher, customer, sufferer, troubleshooter, consumer, pursuer, recruiter, intruder, ruler, bulldozer, pusher, gusher, buster, duster, user, commuter, computer, producer, diffuser, accuser, curer, jeweler, viewer, reviewer, renewer, brewer, insurer, burner, turner, hurter, surfer, purchaser, furnisher, nurturer, encourager, worshipper, prankster, tipster, fraudster, defaulter


Sometimes the -er suffix is written as -or (it is still pronounced /ə/)
actor, animator, ambassador, calculator, navigator, aggregator, evaluator, collaborator, detractor, distractor, protractor, contractor, subcontractor, narrator, translator, locator, captor, grantor, procrastinator, capacitor, radiator, creator, perpetrator, sailor, tailor, purveyor, author, auditor, arbitrator, editor, sector, elevator, emulator, educator, generator, ancestor, benefactor, decorator, director, selector, inventor, inheritor, investor, investigator, inspector, authenticator, spectator, speculator, regulator, protector, collector, creditor, debtor, senator, sensor, vendor, legislator, elector, excavator, error, neighbor, predecessor, professor, suppressor, successor, assessor, executor, competitor, differentiator, interrogator, receptor, detector, aggressor, transgressor, realtor, mediator, administrator, illustrator, innovator, imitator, visitor, dictator, instigator, simulator, incubator, integrator, indicator, predictor, descriptor, exhibitor, contributor, distributor, refrigerator, originator, solicitor, facilitator, manipulator, conspirator, advisor (adviser), survivor, proprietor, violator, hydrator, operator, cooperator, interlocutor, moderator, commentator, accommodator, prosecutor, prospector, processor, doctor, voter, exfoliator, negotiator, coordinator, incorporator, conductor, constructor, instructor, disruptor, counselor, governor, sculptor, supervisor, juror, curator, communicator, impersonator, exterminator